There are currently no products in the cart.
MPO Muscle Performance Optimizer
$74.99 — or
$74.99 / month
MPO is a stimulant-free, all-natural, athletic performance enhancer that improves the way your muscles work. Experience real increases in your muscle strength, power, endurance, and recovery. Be prepared to be a better athlete and set new PRs.*
The first of its kind, physician formulated pre-workout.
- improve your workouts with the ability to increase reps, sets, weight, and time under tension*
- maximize your cardio and interval training by increasing aerobic/anaerobic capacity*
- stimulate your muscle growth, repair and recovery*
- stimulant-free to prevent jitters and an overloaded central nervous system*
|Clinical Dosing||Muscle Energy||Endurance||Muscle Growth||Muscle Repair||Prevent Muscle
|Kaged MusclePre-Kaged||inadequate dose||inadequate dose|
|Optimum NutritionPre-Workout||inadequate dose|
|ProSuppsHyde Pre-Workout||inadequate dose|
|The Genius BrandGenius Pre||inadequate dose|
Disclaimer. Dioxyme is not affiliated with the brands in this comparison chart.
All natural ingredients with eco-friendly packaging. We never use synthetics, or unneeded fillers.
- all natural
- eco friendly
- non gmo
- gluten free
We use trial-proven ingredients at clinically-backed doses that produce measurable results. We never hide behind prop blends or label loopholes.
HMB is a naturally occurring substance and a metabolite of leucine. Some of the leucine that comes in through your daily diet is ultimately converted by the body into HMB. This amount however, is quite minuscule. As such, we need to supplement with HMB to realize its full potential.1
The main benefits of HMB are promoting muscle growth and muscle strength, and preventing muscle breakdown.
To add size and strength, HMB stimulates muscle protein synthesis, the main mechanism that causes your muscles to grow. The higher your levels of MPS, the greater your muscle-building potential. Specifically, HMB has been shown to increase MPS through the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway, which helps coordinate the delivery of fresh nutrients like amino acids and oxygen to your muscles.1,2,3,4,5,6,7
To highlight its effectiveness, one study compared the effects of HMB to placebo. After 12 weeks of supplementation, researchers found significantly greater increases in lean muscle mass in participants who ingested HMB vs placebo (7.4kg vs 2.1kg respectively). The participants consuming HMB also added 55 more kgs to their squat, bench, and deadlift totals in comparison to subjects who received only a placebo.8
To prevent muscle breakdown, HMB prevents the process known as muscle protein breakdown (MPB). In simple terms, less MPB ultimately equates to less recovery time. If an intense workout doesn’t do as much damage to your muscle tissues, it won’t take your body as much time to make repairs. Specifically, HMB alters muscle metabolism, and is shown to decrease the body’s production of enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase, which play a primary role in triggering MPB.9,10
Phosphatidic Acid (PA) (Mediator™ PA)
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a biomolecule produced naturally within your body. It plays an important part in cell signaling, the process of communication that takes place between your body’s cells in order to coordinate and regulate their actions.
Specifically, phosphatidic acid helps to promote mTOR signaling, which once activated, helps promote muscle protein synthesis and cellular growth. The mTOR signaling pathway actively senses and reacts to environmental stimuli, helping to coordinate the transportation of proteins (along with oxygen and other biochemicals) to muscle cells in need of repair.11,12,13
Over the course of one 8-week resistance training study, participants given phosphatidic acid gained on average 2.4 more kilograms of lean body mass than those given placebo. In another 8-week trial, those given phosphatidic acid added on average almost 20 more kilograms to their 1 rep max on the leg press than those given placebo, +52kg vs +32.5kg respectively.14,16
Beta-alanine is a naturally occurring non-essential amino acid that produces carnosine, a peptide that acts as an inhibitor to the chemical reactions that occur in your muscles during physically demanding exercise.17
As such, the main benefits of beta-alanine are its ability to increase anaerobic endurance, and to help build strength.
When you work out, your muscles are actively taking in glucose, which is your body’s primary fuel source. When glucose is burnt up, it leaves behind lactic acid. As the acidity builds up in your muscles, their capacity to take in more glucose becomes diminished. Without the glucose needed for energy, your muscles become exhausted. That… and you “feel the burn”.18
The carnosine that beta-alanine creates though, helps to reduce the buildup of lactic acid, which allows additional glucose to enter into your muscles during high-intensity exercise. In clinical trials, sprinters who consumed beta-alanine were able to sustain greater power outputs for longer durations of time compared to sprinters who did not.17,19,20,21,22,23
While beta-alanine is most effective for high-intensity exercise, that doesn’t mean that it has no benefit for endurance athletes. In fact, in one study involving elite cyclists, researchers found that supplementing with beta-alanine significantly improves cyclists’ sprinting performances at the end of long bouts of endurance-based exercise.24,25
Finally, studies also show that beta-alanine increases strength. In one such study, researchers found that after 5 weeks of training, those who supplemented with beta-alanine saw significantly greater increases in their power outputs compared to the placebo group.26
HICA is another naturally occurring, bioactive, organic compound found in the body that, when provided as a supplement, significantly enhances muscular function and development.
Like HMB, your body naturally produces HICA during the metabolism of leucine. With that said, the muscles and connective tissues use and metabolize leucine via two different biochemical pathways, and of course HMB uses one, and HICA uses the other (the KIC pathway to be specific).
Also like HMB, scientists consider HICA to be anabolic since it enhances muscle protein synthesis. It may do this via a variety of means, but studies indicate that HICA is anabolic because it supports mTOR activation.27
HICA has also been shown to have anti-catabolic properties as well, meaning that it helps to prevent the breakdown of muscle proteins found within muscle tissues. As you exercise intensely, your muscles undergo micro-trauma that causes the muscle cells to break down. We all feel the effects of this micro-trauma 24-48 hours after intense exercise in the form of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). HICA significantly decreases this breakdown or catabolism. The result of this is less DOMS, and more lean muscle to build upon.
In recent athlete studies, scientists noted that the athletes who took HICA over a 6-week period gained 2 pounds and noted significantly less muscle soreness. What is even more interesting about the trials though, is that the placebo group actually lost lean muscle mass. This makes HICA a very important supplement for any athlete performing high-intensity exercise.28,29,30
Creatine monohydrate is one of the original and most extensively studied weightlifting supplements on the market. In fact, there have been thousands of studies spanning multiple decades that show creatine is a top supplement for improving exercise performance.31
Creatine is a naturally occurring compound that’s found primarily in your muscle cells. The main benefits of creatine are increasing muscle energy, muscle size, and muscle strength.
To provide your muscles with energy, creatine increases the amount of phosphocreatine within your muscle cells. Phosphocreatine is used by your muscles during high-intensity activity to produce ATP, which is an energy source, and also the driving factor behind numerous processes within the human body such as muscle contractions.
Impressively, studies consistently demonstrate that creatine monohydrate can increase phosphocreatine concentrations in the muscles by as much as 40%. This means that there is more available energy in your muscles when exercising, which leads to improvements in both anaerobic and aerobic endurance.32,33,34,35
To increase muscle growth, creatine increases intramuscular concentrations of IGF, and increases the number of satellite cells and myonuclei in your muscle fibers. Studies show that both of these factors help add lean muscle mass. The combination of these factors, coupled with an increase in available energy, leads to improvements in muscle strength as well.36,37,38,39,40,41
Amazingly, both short and long-term studies show creatine monohydrate leads to at least 5-15% greater gains in strength and performance. One study even demonstrated an increase in 1RM (one rep max) of 8%, and an increased bench press of 16-43% when compared to placebo.31,42,43,44,45,46,47,48
Drink MPO 30 minutes prior to exercise. MPO is not meant to be sipped. Drink completely at one time. To gain muscle we recommend taking MPO daily, even on days off. It is not necessary to cycle on and off MPO.
Peace of Mind
The supplement industry is full of gimmicks, unsubstantiated claims, and unsafe products. We’re here to put your mind at ease.
- pro athlete
- made in
What is MPO?
MPO is not a traditional pre-workout. It is the first of its kind, physician formulated, athletic performance enhancer. Experience real increases in your muscle strength, power, endurance, and recovery.
Is MPO a pre-workout?
Yes and no.
We recommend taking MPO before all workouts and competitions like a pre-workout. That said, MPO does not contain any stimulants like traditional pre-workouts. Instead, the ingredients in MPO actually improve the way your muscles function to improve workouts and athletic performance.
Should I take MPO every day?
If you are looking to build muscle, we recommend taking MPO every day, including days off.
Can I stack MPO with a traditional pre-workout?
If you are looking to add stimulants to your pre-workout, then yes, you can stack MPO with a traditional pre-workout.
Can I stack MPO with other Dioxyme products?
Absolutely. We recommend stacking MPO with our BCAA’s and Brain.
Is MPO vegan friendly?
Yes it is.
How should an athlete use this?
MPO will kick in in 30 minutes.**
If you are using this prior to training, we suggest you take MPO at least 30 minutes before hitting the gym.
If you are using this for athletic competition, most of our professional athletes take MPO 30 minutes before the competition starts.
Is this produced in a cGMP facility?
Yes. MPO is produced in a GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice), state of the art facility to ensure quality and your safety.
I’d give a 5 if i didn’t have to mix it with carbs and its taste was eh
I used it 4 times. Feel like I’m getting a rep or two more. Want to give it a couple months of consistent use to give a fair review.
I feel power and incredible strength after taking this product. I have had significant results in the past 2 weeks. I strongly encourage you to try it out!!
This stuff really works nicely. Seeing results
Thi love this product. Now it’s my new preworkout
You Might Also Like...
1. Holeček M. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation and skeletal muscle in healthy and muscle-wasting conditions. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Aug;8(4):529-541. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12208. Epub 2017 May 10. PMID: 28493406; PMCID: PMC5566641.
2. Zanchi NE, Gerlinger-Romero F, Guimarães-Ferreira L, de Siqueira Filho MA, Felitti V, Lira FS, Seelaender M, Lancha AH Jr. HMB supplementation: clinical and athletic performance-related effects and mechanisms of action. Amino Acids. 2011 Apr;40(4):1015-25. doi: 10.1007/s00726-010-0678-0. Epub 2010 Jul 6. PMID: 20607321.
3. Eley HL, Russell ST, Baxter JH, Mukerji P, Tisdale MJ. Signaling pathways initiated by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate to attenuate the depression of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in response to cachectic stimuli. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Oct;293(4):E923-31. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00314.2007. Epub 2007 Jul 3. PMID: 17609254.
4. Aversa Z, Bonetto A, Costelli P, Minero VG, Penna F, Baccino FM, Lucia S, Rossi Fanelli F, Muscaritoli M. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates muscle and body weight loss in experimental cancer cachexia. Int J Oncol. 2011 Mar;38(3):713-20. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2010.885. Epub 2010 Dec 23. PMID: 21184031.
5. Panton LB, Rathmacher JA, Baier S, Nissen S. Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (hmb) during resistance training. Nutrition. 2000 Sep;16(9):734-9. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(00)00376-2. PMID: 10978853.
6. Malafarina V, Uriz-Otano F, Malafarina C, Martinez JA, Zulet MA. Effectiveness of nutritional supplementation on sarcopenia and recovery in hip fracture patients. A multi-centre randomized trial. Maturitas. 2017 Jul;101:42-50. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.04.010. Epub 2017 Apr 22. PMID: 28539168.
7. Wilson JM, Fitschen PJ, Campbell B, Wilson GJ, Zanchi N, Taylor L, Wilborn C, Kalman DS, Stout JR, Hoffman JR, Ziegenfuss TN, Lopez HL, Kreider RB, Smith-Ryan AE, Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Feb 2;10(1):6. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-6. PMID: 23374455; PMCID: PMC3568064.
8. Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Andersen JC, Wilson SM, Stout JR, Duncan N, Fuller JC, Baier SM, Naimo MA, Rathmacher J. The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014 Jun;114(6):1217-27. doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-2854-5. Epub 2014 Mar 6. PMID: 24599749; PMCID: PMC4019830.
9. Wilkinson DJ, Hossain T, Hill DS, Phillips BE, Crossland H, Williams J, Loughna P, Churchward-Venne TA, Breen L, Phillips SM, Etheridge T, Rathmacher JA, Smith K, Szewczyk NJ, Atherton PJ. Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism. J Physiol. 2013 Jun 1;591(11):2911-23. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.253203. Epub 2013 Apr 3. PMID: 23551944; PMCID: PMC3690694.
10. Nissen S, Sharp R, Ray M, Rathmacher JA, Rice D, Fuller JC Jr, Connelly AS, Abumrad N. Effect of leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996 Nov;81(5):2095-104. doi: 10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.115. PMID: 8941534.
12. O'Neil TK, Duffy LR, Frey JW, Hornberger TA. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions. J Physiol. 2009 Jul 15;587(Pt 14):3691-701. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.173609. Epub 2009 May 26. PMID: 19470781; PMCID: PMC2742291.
13. Shad BJ, Smeuninx B, Atherton PJ, Breen L. The mechanistic and ergogenic effects of phosphatidic acid in skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Dec;40(12):1233-41. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2015-0350. Epub 2015 Sep 21. PMID: 26566242.
14. Joy, J.M., Lowery, R.P., Dudeck, J.E. et al. Phosphatidic acid supplementation increases skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 10, P13 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-10-S1-P13
15. Escalante G, Alencar M, Haddock B, Harvey P. The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on strength, body composition, muscular endurance, power, agility, and vertical jump in resistance trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jun 2;13:24. doi: 10.1186/s12970-016-0135-x. PMID: 27274715; PMCID: PMC4891923.
16. Joy JM, Gundermann DM, Lowery RP, Jäger R, McCleary SA, Purpura M, Roberts MD, Wilson SM, Hornberger TA, Wilson JM. Phosphatidic acid enhances mTOR signaling and resistance exercise induced hypertrophy. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014 Jun 16;11:29. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-11-29. PMID: 24959196; PMCID: PMC4066292.
17. Artioli GG, Gualano B, Smith A, Stout J, Lancha AH Jr. Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jun;42(6):1162-73. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c74e38. PMID: 20479615.
18. Bishop D, Edge J, Goodman C. Muscle buffer capacity and aerobic fitness are associated with repeated-sprint ability in women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 Aug;92(4-5):540-7. doi: 10.1007/s00421-004-1150-1. PMID: 15168128.
19. Culbertson JY, Kreider RB, Greenwood M, Cooke M. Effects of beta-alanine on muscle carnosine and exercise performance: a review of the current literature. Nutrients. 2010 Jan;2(1):75-98. doi: 10.3390/nu2010075. Epub 2010 Jan 25. PMID: 22253993; PMCID: PMC3257613.
20. Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Stout JR, Hoffman JR, Wilborn CD, Sale C, Kreider RB, Jäger R, Earnest CP, Bannock L, Campbell B, Kalman D, Ziegenfuss TN, Antonio J. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jul 15;12:30. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y. PMID: 26175657; PMCID: PMC4501114.
21. Sale C, Saunders B, Harris RC. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance. Amino Acids. 2010 Jul;39(2):321-33. doi: 10.1007/s00726-009-0443-4. Epub 2009 Dec 20. PMID: 20091069.
22. Blancquaert L, Everaert I, Derave W. Beta-alanine supplementation, muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan;18(1):63-70. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000127. PMID: 25474013.
23. Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise JA, Achten E. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Nov;103(5):1736-43. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00397.2007. Epub 2007 Aug 9. PMID: 17690198.
24. Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):225-33. doi: 10.1007/s00726-006-0364-4. Epub 2006 Jul 28. PMID: 16868650.
25. Van Thienen R, Van Proeyen K, Vanden Eynde B, Puype J, Lefere T, Hespel P. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Apr;41(4):898-903. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818db708. PMID: 19276843.
26. Maté-Muñoz JL, Lougedo JH, Garnacho-Castaño MV, Veiga-Herreros P, Lozano-Estevan MDC, García-Fernández P, de Jesús F, Guodemar-Pérez J, San Juan AF, Domínguez R. Effects of β-alanine supplementation during a 5-week strength training program: a randomized, controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Apr 25;15:19. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0224-0. PMID: 29713250; PMCID: PMC5918575.
27. Lang CH, Pruznak A, Navaratnarajah M, Rankine KA, Deiter G, Magne H, Offord EA, Breuillé D. Chronic α-hydroxyisocaproic acid treatment improves muscle recovery after immobilization-induced atrophy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Aug 1;305(3):E416-28. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00618.2012. Epub 2013 Jun 11. PMID: 23757407.
28. Barlas P, Craig JA, Robinson J, Walsh DM, Baxter GD, Allen JM. Managing delayed-onset muscle soreness: lack of effect of selected oral systemic analgesics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jul;81(7):966-72. doi: 10.1053/apmr.2000.6277. PMID: 10896014.
30. Mero AA, Ojala T, Hulmi JJ, Puurtinen R, Karila TA, Seppälä T. Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jan 5;7:1. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-1. PMID: 20051111; PMCID: PMC2818616.
31. Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, Ziegenfuss TN, Wildman R, Collins R, Candow DG, Kleiner SM, Almada AL, Lopez HL. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jun 13;14:18. doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0173-z. PMID: 28615996; PMCID: PMC5469049.
32. Mero AA, Keskinen KL, Malvela MT, Sallinen JM. Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):306-10. doi: 10.1519/R-12912.1. PMID: 15142001.
33. Skare OC, Skadberg, Wisnes AR. Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001 Apr;11(2):96-102. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.011002096.x. PMID: 11252467.
34. Theodorou AS, Cooke CB, King RF, Hood C, Denison T, Wainwright BG, Havenetidis K. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. J Sports Sci. 1999 Nov;17(11):853-9. doi: 10.1080/026404199365416. PMID: 10585165.
35. Claudino JG, Mezêncio B, Amaral S, Zanetti V, Benatti F, Roschel H, Gualano B, Amadio AC, Serrão JC. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Jun 18;11:32. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-11-32. PMID: 24991195; PMCID: PMC4077550.
36. Burke DG, Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, MacNeil LG, Roy BD, Tarnopolsky MA, Ziegenfuss T. Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Aug;18(4):389-98. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.18.4.389. PMID: 18708688.
37. Deldicque L, Louis M, Theisen D, Nielens H, Dehoux M, Thissen JP, Rennie MJ, Francaux M. Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 May;37(5):731-6. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000162690.39830.27. PMID: 15870625.
38. Jówko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, Sacharuk J, Zieniewicz A, Wilczak J, Nissen S. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition. 2001 Jul-Aug;17(7-8):558-66. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(01)00540-8. PMID: 11448573.
39. Olsen S, Aagaard P, Kadi F, Tufekovic G, Verney J, Olesen JL, Suetta C, Kjaer M. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. J Physiol. 2006 Jun 1;573(Pt 2):525-34. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.107359. Epub 2006 Mar 31. Erratum in: J Physiol. 2006 Sep 15;575(Pt 3):971. PMID: 16581862; PMCID: PMC1779717.
41. Dangott B, Schultz E, Mozdziak PE. Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation increases satellite cell mitotic activity during compensatory hypertrophy. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Jan;21(1):13-6. doi: 10.1055/s-2000-8848. PMID: 10683092.
42. Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Aug 30;4:6. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-6. PMID: 17908288; PMCID: PMC2048496.
43. Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, Trousselard M, Lesage FX, Dutheil F. Creatine Supplementation and Lower Limb Strength Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. Sports Med. 2015 Sep;45(9):1285-1294. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0337-4. PMID: 25946994.
44. Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, Trousselard M, Lesage FX, Dutheil F. Creatine Supplementation and Upper Limb Strength Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2017 Jan;47(1):163-173. doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0571-4. PMID: 27328852.
45. Rawson ES, Volek JS. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Nov;17(4):822-31. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0822:eocsar>2.0.co;2. PMID: 14636102.
46. McMorris T, Mielcarz G, Harris RC, Swain JP, Howard A. Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2007 Sep;14(5):517-28. doi: 10.1080/13825580600788100. PMID: 17828627.
48. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, Staron RS, Putukian M, Gómez AL, Pearson DR, Fink WJ, Kraemer WJ. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Aug;31(8):1147-56. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199908000-00011. PMID: 10449017.
* These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. Our products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
** Most users feel a noticeable effect within 30-45 minutes. Results may vary.
Warning Prop 65 for California Residents: This product may expose you to chemicals which are known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. For more information, go to https://www.p65warnings.ca.gov/.